Measurements of solar irradiance, both bolometric and at various wavelengths, over the last two decades have established conclusively that the solar energy flux varies on a wide range of time scales, from minutes to the 11-year solar cycle. The major question is how the solar variability influences the terrestrial climate. The Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Study for Solar Cycle 22 (SOLERS22) is an international research program operating under the auspices of the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP) Working Group 1: 'The Sun as a Source of Energy and Disturbances'. STEP is sponsored by the Scientific Committee of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The main goal of the SOLERS22 1996 Workshop was to bring the international research community together to review the most recent results obtained from observations, theoretical interpretation, empirical and physical models of the variations in the solar energy flux and their possible impact on climate studies. These questions are essential for researchers and graduate students in solar-terrestrial physics.
This book describes guidelines prepared by the U.S. Country Studies Program for the evaluation of options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Country Studies Program developed these guidelines in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide developing countries and countries with economies in transition with reference materials for national mitigation assessments. Over 50 countries participating in the program have used the guidelines, which have been refined to reflect their comments. The guidelines delineate a step-wise methodology for evaluating greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy and non-energy sectors and describe the applications of common analytical tools. The U.S. Country Studies Program uses these guidelines in conjunction with intensive training workshops and follow- up technical assistance during the lifetime of each country's study. The program uses similar reference materials to assist counties with their greenhouse gas emission inventories and evaluations of climate change vulnerability and adaptive responses. These guidelines serve three purposes: to assist countries in making decisions about the scope and methodology for mitigation assessments; to provide countries with guidance and step-by-step instructions on each element of a mitigation assessment; and to help countries determine which analytical tools are best suited to their needs and describe procedures for applying these tools. This book describes the application of the most common and readily available methods and analytical tools. Countries are encouraged, where appropriate, to use their own methods.